All About IPv6
This might be the good alternative for IPv4. As we know, that there were many deficiencies in IPv4, as well as due to poor scalability of addressing in IPv4, IPv6 was developed to meet the growing needs of small companies and explosive growth of the internet, especially in emerging markets such as China and India. IPv6 uses a 128-bit address, this allows for 3.4*10^38addresses which is enough for many IP addresses for each person on earth, and probably multiple planets. IPv4 addresses use a dotted-decimal format where each byte ranges from 0 to 255, whereas IPv6 use eight set of four hexadecimal addresses, separated by colon (:), like: xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx:xxxx.
An unspecified IPv6 address is represented as (::), since it contains all zeros. This notation is commonly called a string notation. Hexadecimal values can be displayed in either lower or upper-case for the numbers A-F. IPv6’s large address space deals with global growth, where route prefixes can be easily done in routing table. IP security (IPSec) is built into IPv6, whereas it is awkward in IPv4. With IPv6 two devices can together negotiate security parameters and can setup a secure tunnel between them. With the growth of mobile devices such as smart phones and PDAs, devices can roam between wireless networks without breaking their connections. The encapsulation is simpler in IPv6, providing faster forwarding rates by routers and better routing efficiency. Routers in IPv6 choose best path to destination based on metrics and administrative distances. IPv6 routers look for the longest matching prefix in the routing table to forward a packet to its destination. IPv6 also provides the facility of tunneling which allows us to tunnel IPv6 over IPv4 and vice versa to transmit an IP version of one type across a network using another type. IPv6 is mainly of three types: Anycast (one to the nearest interface), Multicast (one to a group of devices) and Unicast (represents a single interface). IPv6 has the support for static and dynamic routing protocols (RIPng, OSPFv3, IS-IS, MP-BGP4 and EIGRP).
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